Menstruation is a process of cycling and ejection of the lining of the uterus, which is accompanied by uterine bleeding. Normal menstruation comes every 28 days, but a shorter cycle of 25 days or longer than 30-32 days is no longer a normal phenomenon. Irregular menstruation can be said when the cycle length is less than 25 and longer than 35 days.
Opsonomenorea: A prolonged menstruation
The prolongation of menstruation is called opsonomenorea, and the reduction – proyomenomenaya. Irregular menstruation is not a normal condition, so special attention should be paid to this phenomenon. The irregular cycle is a very common problem. According to statistics, each of five women is affected by it.
In most cases, irregular menstruation is accompanied by changes in the duration of menstruation – less than three days (oligomonorrhea) and more than seven days (polymenorhea); changes in the volume of blood loss; painful menstruation and intermenstrual bleeding.
It is assumed that in healthy women menstruation does not cause almost any change in mood and health, does not reduce working capacity and does not disturb normal life.
Causes of irregular menstruation
Contraceptives – Incorrect intake of oral contraceptives is one of the most common causes of irregular menstruation. This problem can also occur with hormone intake. For this reason, every woman needs to get acquainted with how to take contraceptives.
Pregnancy test – When the menstrual cycle does not come within a month at all, each sexually active woman should have a pregnancy test. If it is negative, there are many reasons for concern because there are unnatural processes in the body. This type of irregular cycle can also be provoked by the effects of mental factors such as severe physical or mental overwork, severe stress, excessive weight loss or weight gain.
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Hormone imbalance – Irregular menstruation may be a symptom of small pelvic organ damage, hormone imbalance or endocrine system (mostly thyroid), tumors, ovarian failure, infectious diseases, polycystic ovary.
Menopause – The irregular cycle in older women may be a symptom of menopause.
Changing climatic conditions, long and tiring travels, poisoning, prolonged intake of some types of pills are also factors that can negatively affect the processes of the woman’s body.
Symptoms of irregular menstruation
Menstrual cycle problems that should not raise suspicion of irregularity include periods of puberty when menstrual functions, climacteric and pregnancy are still established. All other deviations in the cycle during childbearing age are evidence of an irregularity.
Symptoms such as abrupt weight loss, weight gain, and increased hair, accompanied by irregular menstruation, should be considered seriously.
When irregular menstruation is caused by stress, overwork or exhaustion, as well as a common physical illness, concomitant symptoms such as drowsiness, memory weakness, looseness, decreased body temperature, decreased working capacity may occur.
An irregular cycle caused by adhesions of the uterine cavity and underdeveloped endometrium can occur with severe headaches, excessive hair, loss of vision and obesity.
When irregular menstruation is provoked by diseases of the adrenal gland, pituitary and hypothalamus, tumors, enzyme deficiency, autoimmune diseases, premature climax may occur at 37 years of age.
Diagnosis of irregular menstruation
Irregular menstruation is one of the most common reasons for a woman’s visit to a gynecologist. Because in itself it is not a disease but a sign of an irregularity in the body, the specialist has to find out what it is. Initially, a gynecological review was performed that had to reject the possibility of polycystic, uterine infection or any other disease process. Thyroid function is investigated, colposcopy, ultrasound and a number of other imaging studies are performed.
Treatment of irregular menstruation
The treatment of cycle problems is determined by the root cause of this violation. Parental contraceptives are used to regulate the cycle, prescribe different hormonal therapies, remove polycysticosis when there is one, prescribe antibiotics to treat infectious processes, apply many different approaches. This variety is dictated by the complexity of processes in the female body and the possibility of the emergence of various diseases.
For this reason, every woman should follow every change in her body and regularly visit her gynecologist. For easier monitoring of menstruation, it is recommended to keep a calendar in which to accurately record the onset and end of menstrual bleeding.